(Takao K. Suzuki, Biophysics and Physicobiology 19, e190011 (2022), DOI: 10.2142/biophysico.bppb-v19.0011)
Endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being,evolved, but we do not know the rules governing their design principles. A large body of knowledge for phenotypic traits is scattered in each field of macrobiology, such as zoology, taxonomy, ecology, and evolutionary biology, and thus not centralized into a unifying framework in descriptions. Here I review concepts, methods, and case studies using butterfly and moth wing patterns to explore phenotypes as systems. I hope these efforts on phenotypic systems biology will become one major target in biophysics and create the next generations of textbooks.